Oliver Goldsmith She Stoops to Conquer: Catherine Cooper shows how the themes of She Stoops to Conquer are developed through contrasts, such as between age and youth, city and country, and high and low social class, and finds that behind those superficial contrasts deeper psychological contrasts are being explored. Aritro Ganguly and Rangeet Sengupta discuss the importance of memory to the Romantics, showing how the issues with which poets such as Wordsworth and Coleridge were concerned resonate with issues relevant to the Classical era, the shift from an oral to written culture which took place with the invention of the printing press, Enlightenment philosophy, contemporary debates about artificial intelligence, and the advent of audio-visual mass communications.
Literary criticism endeavours to establish the literary genres types or categories of the various biblical documents and to reach conclusions about their structure, date, and authorship.
These conclusions are based as far as possible on internal evidence, but external evidence is also very… Functions The functions of literary criticism vary widely, ranging from the reviewing of books as they are published to systematic theoretical discussion.
The minimal condition for such a new appraisal is, of course, that the original text survive. The literary critic is sometimes cast in the role of scholarly detective, unearthing, authenticating, and editing unknown manuscripts.
Weekly and biweekly magazines serve to introduce new books but are often more discriminating in their judgments, and some of these magazines, such as The London Times Literary Supplement and The New York Review of Books, are far from indulgent toward popular works.
Misguided or malicious critics can discourage an author who has been feeling his way toward a new mode that offends received taste. Pedantic critics can obstruct a serious engagement with literature by deflecting attention toward inessential matters.
As the French philosopher-critic Jean-Paul Sartre observed, the critic may announce that French thought is a perpetual colloquy between Pascal and Montaigne not in order to make those thinkers more alive but to make thinkers of his own time more dead.
Criticism can antagonize authors even when it performs its function well. Authors who regard literature as needing no advocates or investigators are less than grateful when wordsworth lyrical ballads essay writer that their works possess unintended meaning or are imitative or incomplete.
What such authors may tend to forget is that their works, once published, belong to them only in a legal sense.
The true owner of their works is the public, which will appropriate them for its own concerns regardless of the critic. Justification for his role rests on the premise that literary works are not in fact self-explanatory.
A critic is socially useful to the extent that society wants, and receives, a fuller understanding of literature than it could have achieved without him. In filling this appetite, the critic whets it further, helping to create a public that cares about artistic quality.
Without sensing the presence of such a public, an author may either prostitute his talent or squander it in sterile acts of defiance. In this sense, the critic is not a parasite but, potentially, someone who is responsible in part for the existence of good writing in his own time and afterward.
Although some critics believe that literature should be discussed in isolation from other matters, criticism usually seems to be openly or covertly involved with social and political debate.
According to MLA style, you must have a Works Cited page at the end of your research paper. All entries in the Works Cited page must correspond to the works cited in your main text. + free ebooks online. Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day? Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. The Spectator Homework Help Questions. Who were the members of The Spectator club? The Spectator ( and ) was a weekly magazine written by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele, which.
Since literature itself is often partisan, is always rooted to some degree in local circumstances, and has a way of calling forth affirmations of ultimate values, it is not surprising that the finest critics have never paid much attention to the alleged boundaries between criticism and other types of discourse.
Especially in modern Europe, literary criticism has occupied a central place in debate about cultural and political issues. Similarly, some prominent American critics, including Alfred KazinLionel TrillingKenneth BurkePhilip Rahvand Irving Howebegan as political radicals in the s and sharpened their concern for literature on the dilemmas and disillusionments of that era.
Such a reconciliation is bound to be tentative and problematic if the critic believes, as Trilling does, that literature possesses an independent value and a deeper faithfulness to reality than is contained in any political formula.
In Marxist states, however, literature has usually been considered a means to social ends and, therefore, criticism has been cast in forthrightly partisan terms. Where this utilitarian view prevails, the function of criticism is taken to be continuous with that of the state itself, namely, furtherance of the social revolution.
In periods of severe orthodoxy, the practice of literary criticism has not always been distinguishable from that of censorship.
Historical development Antiquity Although almost all of the criticism ever written dates from the 20th century, questions first posed by Plato and Aristotle are still of prime concern, and every critic who has attempted to justify the social value of literature has had to come to terms with the opposing argument made by Plato in The Republic.
The poet as a man and poetry as a form of statement both seemed untrustworthy to Plato, who depicted the physical world as an imperfect copy of transcendent ideas and poetry as a mere copy of the copy.
Thus, literature could only mislead the seeker of truth. Plato credited the poet with divine inspiration, but this, too, was cause for worry; a man possessed by such madness would subvert the interests of a rational polity.
Poets were therefore to be banished from the hypothetical republic. Such imitation presumably has a civilizing value for those who empathize with it. Tragedy does arouse emotions of pity and terror in its audience, but these emotions are purged in the process katharsis.
In this fashion Aristotle succeeded in portraying literature as satisfying and regulating human passions instead of inflaming them.
Although Plato and Aristotle are regarded as antagoniststhe narrowness of their disagreement is noteworthy.William Wordsworth (), British poet, credited with ushering in the English Romantic Movement with the publication of Lyrical Ballads() in collaboration with Samuel Taylor Coleridge.
William Wordsworth was born on 7 April in Cockermouth, Cumberland, in the Lake District. His father was John Wordsworth, Sir James Lowther's attorney. Lyrical Ballads - Sample Essay Children were severely abused during the 18th century; they were used, by the poor, as a means to money through child labour or prostitution.
The industrial revolution saw children working long hours with the extremely dangerous machinery and equipment in the factories.
William Wordsworth - Poet It was with Coleridge that Wordsworth published the famous Lyrical Ballads (J. & A. Arch) in The Love Letters of William and Mary Wordsworth () Essays. Essay Upon Epitaphs () by this poet.
poem. Composed Upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other piece of poetry is a collection of poems by William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, first published in and generally considered to have marked the beginning of the English Romantic movement in literature.
According to MLA style, you must have a Works Cited page at the end of your research paper. All entries in the Works Cited page must correspond to the works cited in your main text. Literature: Literature, a body of written works.
The name has traditionally been applied to those imaginative works of poetry and prose distinguished by the intentions of their authors and the perceived aesthetic excellence of their execution. It may be classified according to a variety of systems, including language and genre.