Hutchins "The development and use of machine translation systems and computer-based translation tools". Successful decoding of encrypted messages by machines during World War II led some scientists, most notably Warren Weaver, to view the translation process as essentially analogous with decoding.
The template approach to authoring: Section 4, Module 3. This module also assumes that the reader is familiar with the basics of multimedia CALL - see Module 2.
If you are writing primarily for the Web you are advised to read Module 3. This Web page is designed to be read from the printed page. After you have digested the contents of the printed copy, come back to the onscreen version to follow up the hyperlinks.
Introduction by Graham Davies I wrote my first authoring program in the late s. Having written a number of dedicated CALL programs in BASIC over a period of two years, I had finally realised that writing new code for each new program was incredibly tedious, so I set about writing a program that would speed up the process.
By modern standards the package was extremely primitive. The package could also give an indication of the shape of the anticipated answer, e. If the student just got a couple of letters wrong the computer would indicate where the errors lay, e.
Questionmaster was crude but effective within its limitations - which were considerable, both in terms of the Presentation module 5 number of different and the physical environment in which it operated. Since the s a bewildering array of authoring tools have made their appearance, for example: Most of the above packages were short-lived, but some are still going strong and are described by Paul Bangs in the following sections of this module.
An authoring tool makes the software creation process easier, however, and many language teachers have produced large amounts of materials for their students. There is a also a thriving business in sales of ready-made sets of authored materials that tie in with coursebooks, and there are a number of websites maintained by practising teachers that contain banks of such materials designed to be used in conjunction with existing authoring packages, such as Fun with Textsa package that is widely used in secondary schools in the UK.
So what is authoring all about? Over to Paul Bangs We all have a concept of the word author, whether as verb or noun. In a general literary context we take this to be a creative process, stemming usually solely from the mind and pen or word-processor of the writer.
However, in the world of computer programming, the term authoring has taken on a new and quite different dimension. Writing computer programs can be a daunting task. Programmers spend much time in training and updating their skills, and various complex programming languages are employed in the process of creating the vast amounts of software we all use today.
Clearly, not all teachers will wish to be programmers, and the huge investment in time and energy to learn such skills is not at all cost-effective for the typical teacher wishing to create effective learning materials. With this audience in mind, there has grown, over the years, a new class of software, whose aim is to enable relatively unsophisticated computer users to create appropriate learning programs - or courseware, a term that we will use from now on.
Some authoring systems are subject-specific, others generic. Some are platform-dependent, others cross-platform. What is important is the ratio between the time spent in creating an item of courseware, and the eventual learner use time of the completed product.
The lower the ratio, the more cost-effective the authoring system although, naturally, much depends on the level of knowledge and training of the developer.
This module aims to describe and classify some of these authoring systems, and to assist in the process of choosing the appropriate one for the intended outcomes and, above all, to facilitate the development of a sound pedagogical approach to the use of authoring systems to create courseware.
Early CALL and authoring When computers began the long but increasingly rapid progress towards the relatively cheap and powerful machines we have at our disposal today, things were very different. What PCs there were had no sound facilities, and usually just a low-resolution black and white screen, with limited graphical capability.
Small wonder that the first CALL programs were all text-based. With the first courseware being created in the BASIC computer language, only a few enthusiastic souls took up the challenge, and invested heavily in their time to learn the necessary skills. However, it was soon realised that the use of computers would not make much headway into the classroom or open access centre until language teachers were able to create their own items of courseware without undertaking such an overhead.
Thus there emerged several key initiatives which count as the first steps in providing language teachers with subject-specific authoring tools.
Many of the early authoring tools are still with us in some form or other, though they have evolved considerably over the years. They began as a simple means of allowing courseware creators to have responsibility for the content of their work, leaving the functionality to be dealt with by the authoring program itself.
In this way, the user has a very short learning curve to adopt in order to be able to use the systems, and a critical mass of courseware can be created at very low cost to enable justification of use of PCs in or around the classroom situation. In this respect these were, and are, highly effective and also influential developments.
It is important to recognise their role as, essentially, tools for creating what is often referred to as "exerciseware", in that they deal with a limited range of exercise types rather than the ability to create a cohesive course of learning.
In their current forms they are very different from their original versions, having developed to cater for the changing requirements and facilities of the PC world — but we shall return to this later.Welcome to CDRH Learn, FDA's Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) web page for multimedia industry education.
CDRH Learn is our innovative educational tool, . Adventures in Femtoland: Yuan for Invaluable Fun. GSM networks are compromised for over five years. Starting from passive sniffing of unencrypted traffic, moving to a fully compromised A5/1 encryption and then even to your own base station, we have different tools and opportunities.
Authors of this module. Piklu Gupta: At this time of writing this module Piklu was a lecturer in German Linguistics at the University of Hull, UK. He is now working for Fraunhofer IPSI.. Mathias Schulze: At this time of writing this module Mathias was a lecturer in German at UMIST, now merged with the University of Manchester, UK.
No mobile devices in your classroom? No worries! You can enjoy Nearpod from any web browser:) Create, engage, and assess your students in every lesson! About presentation of module. Ask Question. up vote 3 down vote favorite. Why vowels sound different from each other Why can't the Schrödinger equation be solved exactly for multi-electron atoms?
Does some solution exist even in principle?. The architecture of WPF spans both managed code and native code components.
However, the public API exposed is only available via managed code. While the majority of WPF is in managed code, the composition engine which renders the WPF applications is a native component.