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Introduction Burke Miller A group of religious leaders met in Cambridge, Massachusetts during a hot summer in to discuss the lack of discipline within their congregations. While the group lamented the religious commitment of their followers, a large snake slithered into the hall scattering those unfortunate enough to be standing in the doorway.
The Puritan leaders, including Governor John Winthrop who recorded the event in his journal, saw the true significance of this reptile invasion. The plan for resistance was relatively simple. Each town with at least fifty families would support a teacher responsible for basic literacy and larger towns, with more than one hundred families, would support a grammar school to prepare the most promising scholars for college.
Parents taught 1 2 Introduction their children the alphabet, sent them to petty schools for reading, and paid for advanced studies in grammar schools. Despite these examples, no systematic movement for education developed in the southern English colonies.
Agricultural patterns coupled with high mortality rates and a reliance on slave and indentured labor generally stunted the growth of dense settlements and accompanying communal activity, including public schooling.
Thus, few inducements to public education existed for the poor, while wealthy families either sent their children to England or hired European tutors. Generally established by missionary organizations, charity schools typically addressed a more diverse student population including poor white children, African Americans and Native Americans.
Supported by the Anglican Church, the Society for Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts championed missionary and educational initiatives for Native Americans and white settlers throughout the mid-Atlantic and southern English colonies.
Dissenting religious groups, such as the Moravians, Quakers, and Jesuits, also established missions and schools in Maryland, North Carolina, and Virginia.
However, charity schools suffered from two impediments. First, they were reliant on uncertain funding sources that often disappeared as mission initiatives changed. Second, some groups rejected charity efforts out of hand. Baptists, Dutch Reformed, Lutherans, Mennonites, Moravians, Quakers, and other sects feared indoctrination within Puritan or Anglican schools, while Danes, Dutch, French, Germans, and Swedes wanted native language instruction for their children.
As a result, education varied widely from one settlement and region to another. For instance, the Dutch West India Company financed a school in New Amsterdam inand by eleven of the other twelve settle- Introduction 3 ments also supported public efforts.
In Pennsylvania, Quaker schools reflected the regional diversity by admitting any student, including Blacks, Native Americans, and females. And in the growing commercial centers along the Atlantic coast, private groups incorporated to establish a variety of school options to meet the interests of a growing commercial culture.
For example, the William Penn Charter School became the flagship of Quaker schools, eventually developing into a campus with elementary, Latin, and English schools.
Its establishment prompted the creation of similar institutions throughout the region. Although by each of the Middle colonies boasted multiple schools, no publicly funded system developed. Before that time, only New England supported such efforts. Four shared characteristics—language, literacy, socioeconomic standing, and religious indoctrination—imbued New Englanders with a common purpose that inextricably connected religion with literacy.
The Massachusetts General Court formalized that imperative in by requiring children to read well enough to understand religious dogma and capital laws.
Additionally, parents were assigned legal responsibility for teaching their children, and they actively sought alternatives if they lacked the ability or time to do so.
Colonial laws required towns to offer schools for those who chose to attend and could demonstrate some mastery of the alphabet. Despite no exclusionary language in the earliest laws, towns intended their schools to serve only white males.
Although some females were permitted to attend, their numbers were never great and they actually decreased with time.
In small schools with uncertain academic term lengths, rapid teacher turnover, shifting student attendance, and varying degrees of student preparation, ability, and interest, schoolmasters rarely accomplished more than a rudimentary education of reading and writing through memorization of moral lessons.
Typically, the early curriculum began with a hornbook and progressed to psalters, catechisms, and the Bible itself. Two works served as early curriculum guides: By the late 4 Introduction seventeenth century, the New England Primer had become standard fare in town schools.
The Boston Latin School, established inwas the first school of this sort built in America. With the creation of Harvard a year later, grammar schools proliferated as more students sought college preparatory training.
Their curriculums tended to include the study of the Greek and Latin languages with some arithmetic. Most grammar schools were funded through the tuition paid by wealthy families and endowments, often in the form of land, to subsidize poorer scholars.
Sometimes multiple towns or sections of towns jointly supported a grammar school. Only a minority of children attended regularly, and, even in New England, opportunities were limited. As a result, parents sought alternative means for educating their children.
While public education continued to focus on preparing white males for future religious and civic duty, the types of schools and the means for funding them became more entrepreneurial in nature, and student enrollments became more inclusive.
These new endeavors offered a wider variety of learning options, including alternative classical studies, vocational training, and increased opportunities for females. Since education began in homes, literate women, especially mothers, taught their children to read.
A logical step for many women, especially those seeking additional income, was to instruct neighborhood children for a small fee.Methodist Church in Fiji Draft Revised Policies and Regulations Document.
literature. All the course units in the diploma and degree programmes are taught and examined in English. Thesis and Project Papers may be written in the Fijian and any other vernacular language in Fiji as approved by the Ministerial Training Committee.
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At these institutions, any Pell grant funds that are applied to a student's tuition are reported as tuition revenues. American Indian or Alaska Native A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and and any instruction of a comparable nature and difficulty provided for adults and youth beyond the age of compulsory.