A brief treatment of the Peloponnesian War follows. For full treatment, see Ancient Greek civilization:
The causes of the main Peloponnesian War need to be traced at least to the early s—the Great Gap period—although if Thucydides was right in his general explanation for the war, namely Spartan fear of Athenian expansion, the development of the entire… The Athenian alliance was, in fact, an empire that included most of the island and coastal states around the northern and eastern shores of the Aegean Sea.
Sparta was leader of an alliance of independent states that included most of the major land powers of the Peloponnese and central Greeceas well as the sea power Corinth. Thus, the Athenians had the stronger navy and the Spartans the stronger army.
Further, the Athenians were better prepared financially than their enemies, owing to the large war chest they had amassed from the regular tribute they received from their empire. In the following years their respective blocs observed an uneasy peace. The events that led to renewed hostilities began inwhen Athens allied itself with Corcyra modern Corfua strategically important colony of Corinth.
Sparta and its allies accused Athens of aggression and threatened war. On the advice of Periclesits most influential leader, Athens refused to back down. Diplomatic efforts to resolve the dispute failed. Finally, in the spring ofa Spartan ally, Thebesattacked an Athenian ally, Plataeaand open war began.
The years of fighting that followed can be divided into two periods, separated by a truce of six years. The first period lasted 10 years and began with the Spartans, under Archidamus IIleading an army into Atticathe region around Athens.
Within a few months, however, Pericles fell victim to a terrible plague that raged through the crowded city, killing a large part of its army as well as many civilians. Thucydides survived an attack of the plague and left a vivid account of its impact on Athenian morale.
In the meantime —the Spartans attacked Athenian bases in western Greece but were repulsed. The Spartans also suffered reverses at sea. In they tried to aid the island state of Lesbosa tributary of Athens that was planning to revolt.
But the revolt was headed off by the Athenians, who won control of the chief city, Mytilene. Urged on by the demagogue Cleonthe Athenians voted to massacre the men of Mytilene and enslave everyone else, but they relented the next day and killed only the leaders of the revolt.
Spartan initiatives during the plague years were all unsuccessful except for the capture of the strategic city Plataea in In the next few years the Athenians took the offensive. They attacked the Sicilian city Syracuse and campaigned in western Greece and the Peloponnese itself.
In the picture was bleak for Sparta, which began to sue for peace.
But led by Brasidashero of the Battle of Delium, a Spartan force gained important successes in Chalcidice inencouraging Athenian subject states to revolt.
In a decisive battle at Amphipolis inboth Brasidas and the Athenian leader Cleon were killed. The so-called Peace of Nicias began in and lasted six years. It was a period in which diplomatic maneuvers gradually gave way to small-scale military operations as each city tried to win smaller states over to its side.
The uncertain peace was finally shattered when, inthe Athenians launched a massive assault against Sicily. The decisive event was the catastrophe suffered by the Athenians in Sicily. Aided by a force of Spartans, Syracuse was able to break an Athenian blockade.An overview of the Peloponnesian War, including the Archidamian War, the Athenian attack on Syracuse, and the Decelean War.
(Click here for bottom) I i I Roman numeral for one. This is the one roman numeral that seems very natural. For the claim that Roman numerals are efficient for . “Ancient Greece” By Ekaterina Zhdanova-Redman Washed by the waters of three seas—the Aegean, Ionian, and Mediterranean--Greece was a crossroads for different cultures.
Augustus always attempted to ensure the ultimate succession of someone with Julian blood, but was eventually forced to rely on Tiberius -a Claudian- as the only one with sufficient experience, since other members of the family were still too young.
The War fought between the two leading city-states in ancient Greece, Athens and Sparta. Description: The Peloponnesian War ( B.C.) took place between the Athenian empire and Peloponnesian league lead by the Spartans.
Ancient Greece Peloponnesian War. History >> Ancient Greece. The word Peloponnesian comes from the name of the peninsula in southern Greece called the Peloponnese.
This peninsula was home to many of the great Greek city-states including Sparta, Argos, Corinth, and Messene.
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